Chemical Products

Chemical additives are increasingly gaining popularity in various industries. They encompass an array of materials that are added to polymer resins, paints and coatings, adhesives, and other substances to change specific processing or end-use properties. They include catalysts, wetting agents, levelers, clarifiers, coupling agents, thinners, thickeners, anti-caking agents and other chemicals.

The product Ammonium Sulphate is composed of 21% Nitrogen and 24% Sulphur. It is essentially an inorganic salt that is obtained when Ammonia is treated with Sulphuric Acid. Ammonium Sulphate also occurs in nature as ‘Mascagnite’ which is a rare mineral that can be found in Volcanic Fumaroles. It is also commonly known as Diammonium Sulfate or Sulfuric Acid Diammonium Salt. Ammonium Sulfate is a white crystalline solid in appearance. It has no smell and is salty to taste. Although it does not cause harm, certain precautions are necessary while handling this chemical. Ammonium Sulphate has a wide variety of commercial uses, the most common being as Soil Fertiliser.


The major products that utilise Ammonium Sulphate can be classified as follows:

  • Fertilisers for Crops and Lawns.
  • Additives in Biotechnical as well as Pharmaceutical products.
  • Water Treatment products and as an additive in Cleaning agents.

No agriculture related Business can afford to miss using fertilisers containing Ammonium Sulphate because they help convert alkaline soil into acidic soil, thus enhancing the overall yield of crops.

The Pharmaceutical industry makes use of Ammonium Sulphate for water purification and in the manufacture of vaccines. Ammonium Sulphate helps the Pharmaceutical industry by salting out excess proteins and contaminants.

Ammonium Sulphate also works as an excellent decontaminant. As such, it is used in detergents, toothpaste, shampoo, dental cleansers and a host of other household cleaning products. It can also soften water excellently.

Calcium Stearate is a white coloured powdery/waxy substance that is obtained when soap is mixed with water that contains ions of Calcium. It is essentially a synthetic ingredient that is a product obtained as a reaction between Stearic Acid and Calcium Oxide, when heated together. Calcium Stearate is generally non-toxic. It is considered to be the most important type of Calcium Salt.

Calcium Stearate is not poisonous for human consumption because of which it is commonly used in the manufacture of Pharmaceutical consumables and Food Products. The Cement Industry constantly employs Calcium Stearate. The Paper Industry also employs Calcium Stearate for enhancing the sheen and to prolong the life of Paper. Calcium Stearate is also used in the manufacture of a variety of Tablets and Capsules. It is used in the manufacture of PVC products such as PVC Compounds, Rigid PVC Pipes, Cables, Poly Propylene, Plastic, Explosives, Foundry Chemicals, Cement, Paints, and Cosmetics. The Food Industry uses Calcium Stearate in the manufacture of Spices and Salt, Confections, Supplements etc.

Chlorinated Polyethylene is essentially Polyethylene, but with Chlorine content between 34% to 44%. This is less expensive than Polyethylene itself and is obtained by chlorination of Polyethylene. The standardized acronym for Chlorinated Polyethylene is CPE and it literally stands for Thermoplastic Chlorinated Polyethylene Elastomer. Chlorinated Polyethylene displays high resistance against heat, oil, chemicals, fire, and weather. As such, it is employed in the manufacture of rubber and modifier for resins (PVC, PE, and ABS).

Chlorinated Polyethylene can be used as special synthetic rubber. But, it is normally combined with other materials or used as a major/minor component in various manufacturing industries. General applications of CPE are as a Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE), as rubber and as modifier for PVC, PE, and ABS resins. It is mainly used as an impact modifier in the Building and Construction industry for enhancing the overall health of a Building. It works as an impact modifier by improving impact resistance and bringing down the cost of rigid/brittle un-plasticised PVC. Other Building products that make use of CPE include Rainwater Goods, underground drainage, profiles, doors, and windows. CPE also has a host of other uses such as Wire and Cable Jacketing, Roofing Membranes, Geo Membranes, Automotive, Industrial Hose and Tubing, Moulded Shapes, Extruded Profiles and as a Base Polymer.

The most common Industrial method of Ethyl Acetate production is by Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Ethanol. In this process, Copper is used at an elevated temperature not exceeding 250°C. It is deposited on Zinc, which results in the growth of structures that resemble snowflakes. This increases the surface area of Copper. The by-products obtained from this Dehydrogenation process include Diethyl Ether, Acetaldehyde, Higher Esters, and Ketones. Ethyl Acetate forms an Azeotrope with Ethanol and Water. This azeotrope is broken down by a pressure swinging distillation process or a membrane distillation process. The Dehydrogenation process is the preferred method of Ethyl Acetate extraction because it is more cost effective compared to other methods like Esterification.

Ethyl Acetate is mostly used as a solvent for Coatings, Inks, Adhesives, and Agrochemicals. The biggest commercial use of Ethyl Acetate is as a Flavour Enhancer in the Food Production Industry. Pineapple, Banana, Strawberry flavours use Ethyl Acetate. It is also used as a Flavour enhancer in Whiskey and Cream. Even some Beverages use Ethyl Acetate as a Flavour Enhancer. The Pharmaceutical Industry uses Ethyl Acetate for manufacture of medicines. The Cosmetic Industry makes use of Ethyl Acetate to enhance the aroma of perfumes. Other applications include production of enamels, plastics, and rubber. Another use of Ethyl Acetate is for decaffeination of coffee and tea leaves.

In the preparation of Paraffin Wax, Slack Wax is first chosen as the Feed Stock. Slack Wax is obtained as a by-product when lubricating oil is refined. It is a mixture of Oil and Wax. Slack Wax is first de-oiled or de-waxed. The separation of Oil from Slack Wax is usually performed through Crystallisation. Crystallisation process works by heating the Slack Wax and mixing it with a solvent like Ketone. It is then cooled. When it cools, the solution is separated into Oil and crystallized wax. The mixture is filtered into solid and liquid streams. The solid stream consists of wax with some amount of solvent. The liquid stream has Oil and Solvent. Next, Distillation recovers the solvent. Post Distillation, the resulting products are product wax and foots oil. The product wax is further processed to remove colours and odours. Finally, the wax is blended and certain properties like melt point and penetration are added to it. This blended wax is Paraffin Wax.

The three major industries that make use of Paraffin Wax are the Candle, Thermostat, Distillation, and Packaging Industries. Other areas of application include the Agriculture Industry, Cosmetics, and Personal Care Industry. Paraffin Wax is used for Barrier Coating that is applied to surfaces to prevent the Interaction or Penetration of Liquids and Gases. They are used in the construction of marine and off-road batteries to secure bonding and to measure moisture protection. Paraffin Wax is also used to repel moisture in wood composite boards.

Calcium Carbonate is a chemical compound that naturally occurs in rocks. It occurs in the form of two minerals namely, Calcite, Aragonite, or Limestone. Industrial Calcium Carbonate is mostly extracted through mining and quarrying. Pure Calcium Carbonate is extracted from a pure quarried source like marble. Industrial Calcium Carbonate is manufactured through Calcium Oxide. The process begins by first adding water to Calcium Hydroxide. Next, Carbon Dioxide is passed through this solution which precipitates it into the desired Calcium Carbonate. The naturally occurring Calcium Carbonate deposits that are used for Industrial applications are the ones that have a purity of greater than 90% and are very bright. This natural ore is extracted and is taken to a primary crusher. Here, the size of the ore is reduced and sent into a processing plant. 


Industrial applications of Calcium Carbonate include manufacture of Adhesives and Sealant Chemicals, Fillers, Finishing Agents, Fuels and Fuel Additives, Intermediates, Processing Aids, Agricultural Chemicals, Anti-Adhesive agents, CBI, Corrosion Inhibitors and Anti-Scaling agents, Lubricants and Lubricant Additives, Paint Additives and Coating Additives, Pigments, Process Regulators, and Processing Aids. The major commercial areas of application for Calcium Carbonate include Buildings and Construction materials, Food Packaging applications, Ink, Toner, and Colorant products, Lubricants and Greases, Paints and Coatings, Paper Products, Plastic and Rubber products, and Water Treatment products. Calcium Carbonate has uses in Pharmacology. It is used as a Phosphate Buffer to treat Hemodialysis. It also works as an Antacid to treat Gastric Hyperacidity. It is also consumed as a Calcium supplement and prevents as well as treats Osteoporosis.

Tin Stabilisers are generally used as heat stabilisation for PVC. They constitute a central tin atom surrounded by Alkyl or Acid groups. Commercial Tin Stabilisers have mono and di alkyl salts mixed in varying ratios. Tin Heat Stabilisers for PVC can be classified into two categories namely, Thio Acid half-Esters, and Dicarboxylic half Esters. Thio Acid half-Esters are also known as Thiotins or Mercaptides. Dicarboxylic half Esters are also called Maleates or Carboxylates. Tin Stabilisers are mostly based on Methyl, Butyl, or Octyl groups. Tin Stabilisers are available both in Solid as well as Liquid form. Solid forms may be Paste or Solvent-free form. Tin Stabilisers have wide applications in plasticized PVC because they can be easily handled and integrated with liquid plasticiser dosing systems. 


Tin Stabilisers used in PVC compounds are used for making sheets, bottles, profiles, injection moulded fittings, credit cards, blister packs, food containers, and display trays. They are also used for making PVC Pipes and Fittings, PVC Films, Hose Pipes, and Soft Tubes. Other applications include manufacture of Crystal PVC sheets, blow moulding, calendaring, extrusion etc. Tin Stabilisers are not suited for skin contact which is why they are strictly excluded from applications where skin contact is present, even if there is a need. However, there are some food applications of Tin Stabilisers, never exceeding 2%. Tin Stabilisers are an excellent heat stabiliser replacement for toxic heat stabilisers that were previously used in PVC compounds. Tin Stabilisers are also mixed with Vinyl Polymers to create finished products.

To produce Titanium Dioxide, Mineral Ilmenite is chosen as Feedstock. Mineral Ilmenite is then mixed with Sulphuric Acid. This reaction eliminates the Iron Oxide group in the Ilmenite. Ilmenite Ore produces pigment grade Titanium Dioxide. The by-product from this reaction is Iron Sulphate which is then crystallised and filtered off. Only the Titanium Salt remains in the Digestion Solution. This Titanium Salt is called Synthetic Rutile. Synthetic Rutile is further processed to obtain Titanium Dioxide. Synthetic Rutile is prepared specifically for the extraction of Titanium Dioxide. Titanium Dioxide can also be produced through Nanotechnology by Solvothermal Synthesis. The Becher process can also be used to produce Synthetic Rutile from Ilmenite. Crude Titanium Dioxide that occurs as Synthetic Rutile is purified through a Chloride process by converting it into Titanium Tetrachloride. 


Titanium Dioxide is a white powdery substance that has excellent UV radiation absorbing properties. Hence, it is widely used in paint as a UV shield for buildings and houses. In the Cosmetics Industry, it is used in Sunscreens, toothpaste, lipsticks, Creams, Ointments, and Powders. The Pharmaceutical Industry uses Titanium Dioxide to make Gelatine Capsules, Tablet Coatings, and Syrups. It is used as a colorant in certain foods. Although there is speculation about the safety of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles present in food, the FDA has put its stamp of approval over the usage.

Toluene is naturally available in crude oil at low levels. It is obtained when gasoline is produced through a catalytic reformer technique and when coke is produced from coal, as a by-product. The by-product Toluene is separated from Gasoline or Coke through a Distillation process or a solvent extraction process. The manufacture of Toluene is inexpensive. There are many different methods for producing Toluene. One such method is when Benzene reacts with Methyl Chloride in the presence of Aluminium Chloride. In Industries, alkylation of Benzene with Methanol synthesizes Toluene. Separation of Toluene can be performed using one among several methods like Fine Fractionation in which low purity Toluene is obtained and Azeotropic Distillation that produces pure toluene. 


The primary use of Toluene is as a Gasoline additive for improving Octane ratings. Toluene is also used in the manufacture of Benzene. Another major application of Toluene is as a solvent for paints, coatings, Synthetic Fragrances, adhesives, inks, and cleaning agents. Toluene is added to polymers for the manufacture of Nylon, Plastic Soda Bottles, Polyurethanes, pharmaceuticals, dyes, cosmetic nail products, and in the synthesis of organic chemicals. Other major uses of Toluene are as Adhesives and Sealant Chemicals, non-pesticidal Agriculture chemicals, in Corrosion inhibitors and anti-scaling agents, in Fuels and Fuel Additives, in Functional Fluids for both Open and Closed Systems, in Intermediates, in Ion Exchange Agents, in Laboratory Chemicals, in Lubricants and Lubricant additives, Paints and Coat additives, Plasticizers, Processing Aids, and Solvents.

Tri Basic Lead Sulphate, abbreviated into TBLS is a chemical in white powder form. It contains low molecular weight and moisture content. It constitutes about 87 to 89% Lead. TBLS is mostly used along with a lubricating substance like Calcium Stearate or DBLS. It is very stable and tolerant to heat which is why it is used in high temperature applications without fear of decomposition. It is sweet to taste but highly toxic in nature and hence is unfit for consumption. The process of manufacturing Tri Basic Lead Sulphate begins by choosing among a group of substances constituting Lead Sulphate, Lead Ammonium Sulphate, Lead Monoxide, Monobasic Lead Sulphate, Tetrabasic Lead Sulphate, and Crystalline Dibasic Lead Sulphate. The chosen substance is then treated with one among aqueous ammonia, a mixture of aqueous ammonia and solid ammonium sulphate, solutions of ammonium sulphate, and slurries of ammonium sulphate. 


Tri Basic Lead Sulphate is mainly used for manufacture of PVC and Stabilizers of Plastic PVC Products (also known as Board Products) like Rubber, Cables, Pipes, Artificial Leather, etc. Due to excellent electrical properties of Tri Basic Lead Sulphate, it is used for making cable sheathing. It is also used for manufacture of Pipes that convey gases and liquids. TBLS is also used for injection moulding. TBLS has excellent weather resistant properties which makes it suitable to use in outdoor water pipes, conduits, rain water down pipes, drainage pipes, and profiles in the Building and Construction Industry.

Stearic Acid is a wax-like solid substance. Esters of Stearic Acid are common, naturally occurring saturated fatty acids. The fundamental process for producing Stearic Acid is through saponification of Triglycerides (fat and oil) using hot water of temperature more than 200°C. The Fats and Oils that are chosen for extraction of Stearic Acid contain animal fat (of up to 30%) and relatively lower amount of vegetable oil (<5%). But Cocoa Butter and Shea Butter contain about 28-45% of stearic acid in the form of Triglyceride. The resulting mixture from the saponification process is distilled to obtain Stearic Acid. Commercially available Stearic Acid is mostly a mixture of Stearic Acid and Palmitic Acid, but pure Stearic Acid is also available. 


Stearic Acid is used in food, cosmetics and even for some industrial applications. The biggest and most popular application of Stearic Acid is in Candle Production. It hardens the Candle Wax, thus providing strength to the Candle. Another common use of Stearic Acid is in the manufacture of Soap. It is used as an additive that hardens soap/shampoo and gives it a pearly consistence/texture. Stearic Acid is also used as a stable base for cosmetic products such as Deodorants, Lotions, and Creams. Many food products use Stearic Acid which makes them stable for storing and frying. Common foods that use Stearic Acid include Margarines, Spreads, and Shortenings.


PVC Stabilisers are added either directly into PVC or in combination to prevent oxidation, chain scission, uncontrolled recombination, and cross-linking reactions caused by photo oxidation. Essentially, they protect PVC from the harmful effects of extreme temperature and ultraviolet radiations. PVC Stabilisers are of different types like Heat Stabilisers which are mainly used in Construction projects. Antioxidants are PVC Stabilisers that prevent oxidation of PVC from taking place due to atmospheric oxygen. Hindered amine light stabilizers are PVC Stabilizers that scavenge radicals produced by weathering. The next type of PVC Stabilisers are UV absorbers. They dissipate energy absorbed by UV rays. Antiozonants are PVC Stabilisers that prevent degradation of materials cause by Ozone gas present in the atmosphere. Lastly, PVC Stabilisers are available in the form of Organosulfur Compounds that thermally stabilize polymers. 


PVC Stabilisers are mainly used in the manufacture of Pipes and Fittings, Window Profiles, Rigid and semi-rigid films, wires and cables, coatings, and flooring etc. PVC Stabilisers are available in the form of Heat and UV Stabilisers, Flame Retardants, Smoke Suppressants, Plasticizers, Processing Aids, Impact Modifiers, Thermal Modifiers, Pigments, and Fillers that are added to PVC for strengthening purposes. The applications of a PVC Stabiliser are in all places where PVC is used. PVC is widely used in construction material, medical devices, children’s toys, protective housing for cables and wires, manufacture of credit cards etc. PVC is also used in rubber seals, vinyl fabrics, and automotive parts. Impact Modifier/Processing Aid PVC Stabilisers provide softness and flexibility that PVC does not normally have.


There are two major manufacturing processes for Polyethylene Wax namely, High Pressure Polymerisation and Low Pressure Polymerisation. Low Pressure Polymerisation is a controlled thermal degradation of high molecular weight Polyethylene. In the high-pressure reaction, Polyethylene Wax is prepared from either Polyethylene or Ethylene. Batch processing technology is employed for making PE wax in the degradation technique. This is because it is based on the Thermal Cracking Method and is cost effective as opposed to the Continuous Process Technology. In this degradation technique, by-products such as wax gel and wax emulsion are also obtained. The Technology for manufacturing Polyethylene Wax using either of the two processes as mentioned above was developed by an American Company which used Scrap HDPE and LDPE as the Raw Material. 


PE Wax is mainly used as Slip Agents, Dispersants, Resin Modifiers, and Mould Release Agents. It is added to coatings and to ink to resist adhesion, scratches, and to increase smoothness. They are also used in Masterbaches for Wetting and Dispersion of Pigments. The processing of plastics of different kinds also requires PE Wax for Internal or External Lubricants. For wood-plastic composites, PE Wax is used in adhesion promotion. Some cosmetic applications also use PE Wax. Other uses include Surface Modification for Aqueous and Solvent based Coating Systems and Water or Solvent based wax dispersions. 


Paraffin Wax is a solid substance derived from either one of Petroleum, Coal, or Shale. It constitutes of a mixture of Hydrocarbon molecules with anywhere between twenty and forty Carbon atoms. It has a very unreactive nature. Fully Refined Paraffin Wax contains less than 0.5% Oil and are made free of impurities and decolouration by hydro-treating or clay-treating them. As the refine grade of Paraffin Wax goes down, the Oil content increases up to 1.5%. Fully Refined Paraffin Wax is free of water and odour and is deemed a food grade substance. It has a clearly defined crystal structure and is hard and brittle in appearance. It has good physical stability and cannot be deformed easily. 


Three major industries that use Fully Refined Paraffin Wax are the Cosmetics, Medical, and Food Industries. The Candle Making Industry also uses Fully Refined Paraffin Wax. Common items manufactured that use Paraffin Wax are Lipsticks, Cream, Oily Papers, and Chocolate. Candles made using Fully Refined Paraffin Wax are of the highest grade and are the most expensive. It is also used for Lubrication applications and for Electrical Insulation. Plastic Bottle Cap Liners are made using Paraffin Wax. These liners form watertight seals to prevent water from leaking out when the bottle is overturned. Chewing Gum bases contain Paraffin Wax because it helps to bind the ingredients in chewing gum and to impart it with ‘chew’ characteristics. Paraffin Wax is also used in pigment binders for manufacture of Crayons by serving as a medium to transfer the pigment in crayon to the desired substrate.

Optical Brighteners are chemicals that are primarily used to impart whiteness to Paper, Plastic, Textiles, and Detergents. They are available in either Liquid or Powder form. They are compounds that absorb light from the ultraviolet and violet regions of the Electromagnetic Spectrum and re-emit the same light in the Blue region of the Electromagnetic Spectrum by a process known as Fluorescence. Fluorescence is a process in which short light emissions take place, spanning small periods of time. Optical Brighteners are synthesized using various chemicals like Triazine Stilbenes, Coumarins, Imidazolines, Diazoles, Triazoles, Benzoxazolines, and Biphenyl Stilbenes. Cyanuric Chloride is one of the chemicals used in Optical Brighteners that is used as a precursor and cross-linking agent in Sulphonated Triazine-Stilbene based Optical Brighteners. 


Optical Brighteners are generally used to brighten colours and to mask yellowing of lacquers, paints, inks, plastics, photo-processing solutions, and fibres. Other applications of Optical brighteners include in Moulded Thermoplastics, Films and Sheets, Synthetic Leather, and Ultraviolet Tracers. Substrates like Cellulose, Nylon, Silk, Wool, Paper, Detergents, Soaps, Plastics, Coatings, and, Polymers. The Kolocron range of Optical Brighteners are used for bleaching of Cotton, Silk, Polyamide, Paper, Pulp, Detergents, Waste Paper, Bamboo Wood, and Cellulose. The Benetox range of Optical Brighteners are used in Screen Printing applications. The Textile Industry has major applications for Optical Brighteners.


A One Pack Stabilizer is a pack of additives added during the processing of PVC. The additives are a combination of substances like Oxidisers, Lubricants etc. One Pack Stabilizers may be Lubricated or Non-Lubricated. Non-Lubricated One Pack Stabilizers are high performance stabilizers that are specially designed for optimum performance. One Pack Stabilizers play important roles during processing as well as during the service life of the product to which they are added. There are Lead Based One Pack Stabilizers that are metal complexes together with Stearates and Lubricants that are produced in solid form. Non-Toxic One Pack Stabilizers are based on Calcium, Zinc, and Barium that are blended with co-stabilizers and lubricants to make the product heavy metal free. 


Lubricated One Pack Stabilizers are used for extrusion of Rigid Pipes, Pressure/Non-Pressure Pipes, Casings, and Capping. Non-Lubricated One Pack Stabilizers are used in formulations of rigid PVC Pipes, Conduits, and Suction Pipes. One Pack Stabilizers are used in major Industries pertaining to Construction, Medicine, Packaging, Furnishing, Agriculture, Telecommunications, and Transport. One Pack Stabilizers are great heat stabilizers for PVC formulation. They can withstand high temperatures without decomposing. They are mostly in non-dusting powder forms. Mixed Metal Liquid Stabilisers are used for Calendaring, Injection Moulding, and in Plastisol Coating Industries. They contain metals like Barium, Cadmium, and Lead which provide excellent heat stability. Metal Octoates are also One Pack Stabilizers that reduce drying time of materials and promote curing or hardening of oxidizable coatings.


Methylene Dichloride, also known as Dichloromethane is an organic compound that is available naturally in Oceans, Volcanoes, Wetlands, and in Microalgae. The chemical reaction that produces Methylene Dichloride occurs between Chloromethane and Chlorine Gas or Methane with Chlorine gas at temperatures ranging between 400-500°C. These chemical reactions result in a mixture of products consisting of Chloromethane, Dichloromethane, Chloroform, and Carbon Tetrachloride. The resultant mixture is distilled to separate the different compounds and Methylene Dichloride is obtained. Methylene Dichloride is colourless in appearance and has a sweet fragrance. It can dissolve perfectly in different organic compounds which is why it has a wide range of industrial applications as a chemical solvent. 


The most popular application of Methylene Dichloride is in the drinking bird heat engine. Other applications include as a paint stripper and degreaser. Methylene Dichloride is used in the Food Industry for decaffeination of coffee and tea, for making hop extracts, and flavourings. The Plastic Industry also uses Methylene Dichloride to weld plastics, to seal electric meter casings, and in plastic welding adhesives. In the garment printing industry, Methylene Dichloride is used for removing heat sealed garment transfers. The Furniture and Bedding Industry also uses Methylene Dichloride as a replacement for Fluorocarbons in the production of foams for furniture and beds. The Pharmaceutical Industry uses Methylene Dichloride for manufacturing some tablets. In the making of steroids, antibiotics, and vitamins, Methylene Dichloride is used for extracting chemicals from plants.

Isopropyl Alcohol, abbreviated into IPA is a chemical compound that is used in a variety of industrial and household applications. Isopropyl Alcohol is popularly known as Rubbing Alcohol. It has a very high evaporation rate and is colourless and highly flammable. The chemical composition of Isopropyl Alcohol is three Carbon Atoms, eight Hydrogen atoms, and one Oxygen atom. The Industrial preparation of IPA involves passing water and propene through a hydration reaction. The Hydration process is of two types, indirect and direct. The Indirect process is also known as the Sulphuric Acid process. In the Indirect Process, low-quality propene is used. The Direct Process uses high-purity Propene. A third process of producing IPA is through Hydrogenation of Acetone.


Isopropyl Alcohol is used as a solvent for Coatings and for Industrial processes. Manufacture of Household and Personal Care products also use Isopropyl Alcohol. The biggest and most popular household use of IPA is as Cleaning Fluid because it can dissolve oils excellently. It has a wide range of medical uses like Rubbing Alcohol, in hand sanitisers, and in disinfecting pads. In laboratories, Isopropyl Alcohol is used as a non-toxic alternative to formaldehyde for preserving laboratory specimens. It is also used in DNA extraction to precipitate the DNA since DNA is insoluble in IPA. The Automotive Industry uses IPA as a major ingredient in “gas dryers” which are essentially fuel additives. Despite the wide range of uses, IPA is toxic and unfit for direct human inhalation or consumption.


Impact Modifiers are substances that increase the durability of moulded or extruded plastics, especially those that need to be constantly subjected to impact forces like cold weather. They are added to compounded materials to provide performance features. They provide strength and break resistance to the product for which they are added. They also provide rigidity to the product to prevent it from wrapping or sagging during everyday use. Impact Modifiers also provide various properties to the product like optical and tensile strength, weatherability, processability, flammability, and heat distortion. Impact Modifiers are of different types depending on the product they are added into like Precipitated Calcium Carbonate for PVC etc. Impact Modifiers are elastomeric or rubbery in nature which is why they can absorb the energy of an impact or dissipate it. 


The major applications of Impact Modifiers are for packaging, construction, automotive, and consumer goods. They are used in plastic resins for packaging and film like Technical Films, and Rigid Containers. PVC Pipes and Fittings in the Building and Construction Industry also see the use for Impact Modifiers. Other uses of Impact Modifiers include Electronic Housing, Transportation Parts, and Films. Other PVC applications of Impact Modifiers include for siding, fence, deck, rail, pipe, and injection moulding applications. Manufacture of Sheets, Food Packaging Film, Bottles, Pharmaceutical Blister Packs also need Impact Modifiers. Sporting goods, Glass and Mineral Fillers also need Impact Modifiers for production.


Hexane is a major constituent of Gasoline. At room temperature, they appear as colourless liquids and they are odourless when pure. The main method of extracting Hexane is by refining Crude Oil. The exact composition of the extracted Hexane depends on the Oil source (either crude or reformed) and on the refining constraints. Industrially produced Hexane is the fraction that is boiling between 65-70°C. This isolation process of Hexane can occur either from light gasoline or from a few other sources like Benzene, Toluene, and xylene either by super fractionation or by molecular sieve separation. During the initial oil extraction process, certain solvents are used. But when it is required to preserve desirable colours or to eliminate unwanted tastes and unwanted food properties, the extraction process is combined with other procedures.


Hexane is mainly used as an extractant for edible oils from seed crops like Soybeans, Cottonseed, Rape Seed, Flax, Mustard Seed, Peanuts, Safflower Seed, and Corn Germ. In the Textile Manufacturing Industry, Shoe and Leather Making Industry and the Furniture Manufacturing Industry, Hexane is used as degreaser or special purpose solvent. In the Printing Industry, it is used as a cleaner and as a component of some inks. Hexane is used in Rubber Cement that is used in schools, libraries, and by artists. Hexane is also present in glues, adhesives, leather-dressing for shoes etc. Thermometers that work in the low temperature range, also known as non-mercury thermometers also use Hexane for manufacture.

Epoxy Oil is also known as Epoxidized Soybean Oil. It may be a mixture of Triglycerides. It is a viscous liquid with a yellowish tinge. Epoxy Oil is produced through an epoxidation process. Polyunsaturated Vegetable Oils are used as precursors for the epoxidation process because they have high carbon-carbon double bonds. A peroxide or peracid is then used to add an atom of Oxygen. This additional Oxygen atom converts the Carbon-Carbon bond into an Epoxide group. Epoxidation of Soybean Oil is followed by Transesterification of the Soybean Oil followed by the Epoxidation of Esters. In the Transesterification process, excess allyl alcohol reacts with Triglyceride. Transesterification results in a Soybean based Epoxy Resin. It may be cured using a curing agent. 


Epoxy Oil is mainly used for preparation of Coatings, Adhesives, and Composite Materials like Carbon Fibre and Fibreglass reinforcements. They are also used in Industrial Tooling applications like moulds, master models, laminates, castings, and fixtures. The electronics industry uses Epoxy Oils for making motors, generators, transformers, switchgear, bushings, and insulators. In the Petroleum and Petrochemical industries, Epoxy Oils are used in water shut-off treatments for plugging specific reservoir layers from producing excessive brine. In marine applications, Epoxy Oils are used as repair resins. The Aerospace Industry also uses Epoxy Oil as a structural matrix material. Even in art, Epoxy Oils are used for mixing with the pigment and using as a painting medium. Layers are poured one on top of the other until the final picture is produced.

Dioctyl Phthalate abbreviated as DOP is a general-purpose plasticizer. It is mainly used for improving the softness and pliability of PVC. DOP is essentially the phthalate ester of 2-Ethyl Hexanol. First, esterification is performed between Phthalic Anhydride and 2-Ethyl Hexanol. This esterification reaction occurs in two steps. In the first step, alcoholysis of Phthalic Acid takes place which results in the production of monoesters. In the second reaction step, monoester is converted into di-ester. To accelerate the reaction, temperature elevation and introduction of a catalyst takes place. Excess alcohol produced in the reaction is recovered and recycled. Finally, the DOP produced is purified through vacuum distillation and/or by using activated charcoal. The entire reaction sequence occurs within a closed system.


Dioctyl Phthalate has good plasticizing properties that makes the long polymer molecules in it to slide against one another. It is mainly used as a softening agent. It makes any product easily rebound and harden only under pressure. The Automotive Industry, Building and Construction, Flooring, and Medical equipment industries make use of Dioctyl Phthalates. Other applications of DOP include processing of Polyvinyl Chloride, making of ethyl-cellulose resins for producing plastic films, imitation leather, electric wires, cable wearers, sheets, mould plastic products, and nitrocellulose paints. It is also used in industrial wood coatings for improving the performance properties of wood coatings formulations. Medical and Sanitary products like Blood Bags and Dialysis Equipment see Dioctyl Phthalate use for manufacture. It is used in blood bags because Dioctyl Phthalate stabilises red blood cell membranes, thus enabling and prolonging blood storage.

Di Basic Lead Sulphate abbreviated from DBLS is a white, powdery substance that is highly toxic in nature despite its sweet taste. It has a specific gravity of 2.1 and is soluble in a variety of substances like Hydrochloric Acid and Nitric Acid, except for water. There are a number methods for the manufacturing of DBLS namely, the Precipitation method, a Direct process, and a Fusion process. The Precipitation Method is also known as an Indirect Method. In the Direct process, Litharge and Stearic Acid undergo a direct reaction to produce the resultant Di Basic Lead Sulphate. The Fusion Process is also called a High Shear Process where controlled temperature and pressure conditions together produce an off-white Di Basic Lead Sulphate. 


Di Basic Lead Sulphate works best as a PVC Stabilizer owing to excellent heat and UV radiation degradation resistance properties. DBLS is the cheapest PVC stabilizer available and the most popular. Major applications of DBLS are in PVC Compounds, in rigid PVC Pipes, in Cables and Wires, in PVC Profiles and Flooring, in PVC Footwear, and in Plastic Master Batches (as heat stabilizers and lubricants). DBLS has free lead oxide and free fatty acid content. The lead oxide provides stability and the free fatty acid helps in lubrication. Both these components contribute towards the ability of Di Basic Lead Sulphate to perform in high temperature conditions. Two other applications of DBLS include Calendaring and Extrusion operations. Due to the high toxicity levels of DBLS, it is not used in any food processing applications.

DBP is abbreviated into Dibutyl Phthalate. It is used as a plasticiser and is also added to adhesives or printing inks. DBP is produced when n-butanol reacts with Phthalic Anhydride. This reaction occurs in the presence of Catalyst concentrated Sulphuric Acid. Excess Alcohol is produced in the reaction which is recovered and recycled. Water is also obtained from this process which is recovered and treated before discharging as waste. The di-n-butyl phthalate is then purified through a vacuum distillation process or by using activated charcoal. The optimum temperature required for this reaction is 150°C with agitation. This process of treating n-butyl alcohol with Phthalic Anhydride followed by purification results in a product that is devoid of colour and odour.


DBP is used in everyday products like Plastics, Paints, Inks, and Cosmetics. It is mainly used as a PVC plasticiser for making film, sheeting, coated products, flooring, roofing, wall coverings, hoses, tubing, wires, cables, injection moulded shoe soles, car undercoating, and sealants. Other uses for DPB in non-PVC applications include adhesives, sealants, paints, printing inks, lubricants, nail polish, and perfumes. They are also used as suspension agents for solids in aerosols. The applications of DBP are mostly in the Automotive, Building, and Construction sectors. Few other uses are in insect repellents, as solvents in lacquer and pesticides, and as dye carriers.

When ordinary Cement Concrete (or Portland Cement) is mixed with certain chemicals, the behaviour of the Cement Concrete is modified. The additional chemicals are commonly known as Admixtures. This changed product can resist harsh weather conditions and can give rise to Bigger, Stronger, and Higher Structures. The ordinary Cement Concrete is no longer used and companies are modifying its behaviour constantly by subjecting it to various chemicals to meet the growing needs of the Building and Construction Industry. This modified Cement Concrete is today known as Construction Chemical. Every single building or high-rise today is made with Construction Chemical and Developers find it hard to imagine the days when only pure Cement Concrete was used in construction. There are different types of Construction Chemicals that suit different needs and every company that manufactures them makes at least 50 to 100 different types of them. 


The name itself is quite self-explanatory. Construction Chemical is obviously used in different Construction and Architectural projects. These days the application of Construction Chemicals is for very demanding construction work. With the help of these chemicals, different types of mortar can be produced that are used for decorative render, grouts, adhesives, flooring, or screed. Major areas of application are for Air Voids, Shrinkage Reducing Agents, and for Water Repellents. Air Void applications include Defoamers, Release Agents, and Air Entrains. They are also used as Mould Release Emulsions for Steel Mould, Sealed Plywood, Rubber, or Plastic. Water Repellents are mostly used for Integral and Topical applications.